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Viewing The Peru Worlds Fair Exposition of 1872

Peru Worlds Fair Details

We begin in Lima at the Peru Worlds Fair of the 1870’s. Next we examine melted snow and geology. The Lima International Exhibition (Exposicion Internacional de 1872) was held in the Park of the Exposition, Lima, in 1872 to attract foreign investment, demonstrate Peru’s progress and to mark fifty years since Peru’s independence.

The Peruvian president José Balta had ordered the demolition of the Walls of Lima in 1870 and the establishment of the Park of the Exposition to host the exhibition. The park was designed by Manuel Atanasio Fuentes and Antonio Leonardi and opened on 1 July 1872.

During the fair there was a botanic garden, a Chinese pavilion and displays of modern machinery and of pre-Columbian art. And still remaining in the park in 2017 there are a Byzantine and Moroccan pavilion and a fountain of Neptune. There was also a Huaca, a Chinese pavilion, a dovecote, a lake with swans and a large clock. The clock, ‘The great clock of Lima’, designed by Pedro Ruiz Gallo was installed in a tower and as well as the time had six dials showing century date, year, month, week, day and phases of the moon, incorporated an organ and a 3×1 mitre oblong to show a different historical picture every 25 hours.

The British firms Ransomes, Sims and Head (Ipswich) exhibited agricultural machinery, Ruston, Proctor and Company a road engine, Bailey and Company fire pumps and pyrometers and Barrow Hematite Steel Company showed steel and iron works at the Peru Worlds Fair.

THE GREAT CLOCK

The Great Clock of Lima also known as the Pedro Ruiz Gallo clock after its inventor, was a monumental clock created by Pedro Ruiz Gallo, and which was installed in the Parque de la Exposición in 1870 for the celebration of the Exhibition of 1872. The watch disappeared during the occupation of Lima by the Chilean Army in the War of the Pacific.

After the Spanish-South American War, colonel and inventor Pedro Ruiz Gallo was able to dedicate himself entirely to the ambitious project of building a great clock for the Peruvian capital, which he achieved under the patronage of then-President José Balta, who appointed him attached to the General Staff and financed his work. To carry out the mechanism, he obtained a budget of S/.31,000 from the Peruvian State, to which he added some S/.10,000 from his own pocket.

Despite the opposition and criticism that his work received, after 6 years of work he was able to inaugurate his mechanical work on December 6, 1870, at 00:00, a few days before the anniversary of the Battle of Ayacucho was celebrated, before the admiration of the public gathered in the gardens in front of the Palacio de la Exposición.

The clock was one of the main attractions of the Peru Worlds Fair of 1872 held in Lima, where various representative objects of the Andean country were exhibited, as well as machinery that indicated the Peruvian progress generated from the economic boom for the export of guano. It remained at the Palace of the Exhibition, which served as its location for ten years, until the War of the Pacific led to the occupation of Lima in 1881.

The clock was exposed in the Peru Worlds Fair park for about 10 years. During the occupation of Lima by the Chilean Army, various facilities such as the Universidad Mayor de San Marcos, the National Library or the Palacio de la Exposición were used as barracks by the invading troops. One of the theories about the fate of the watch suggests that after being disassembled it was taken as war booty by order of Patricio Lynch, however once in Chile it could not be put into operation. According to Jorge Basadre, its inventor removed essential parts of the mechanism to render it useless so that the enemy could not rebuild it once it was transferred to Santiago de Chile.

VIDEO SOURCE
Jon Levi

https://www.wikiwand.com/en/Lima_International_Exhibition

https://www.wikiwand.com/en/Park_of_the_Exposition

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